An antibody screen, also known as an indirect antiglobulin test or an indirect Coombs test is a test used to detect different types of antibodies against red blood cells antigens and is found circulating in the bloodstream.
Also Known As: Indirect Antiglobulin Test, Indirect Coombs'
Bacterial sepsis constitutes one of the most serious infectious diseases. The detection of microorganisms in a patient's blood has importance in the diagnosis and prognosis of endocarditis, septicemia, or chronic bacteremia.
Carbon monoxide is the most common of the gaseous poisons. Malfunctioning or poorly ventilated heating appliances and internal combustion engines are frequent causes of carbon monoxide poisoning. Carbon monoxide combines reversibly with hemoglobin in a manner almost identical to oxygen resulting in a decrease in the amount of oxygen carried by hemoglobin.
Also Known As: Carboxyhemoglobin
Decreased levels of ceruloplasmin are found in Wilson's Disease, fulminant liver failure, intestinal malabsorption, renal failure resulting in proteinuria, chronic active hepatitis and malnutrition. Elevated levels are found in primary biliary cirrhosis, pregnancy (first trimester), oral contraceptive use and in acute inflammatory conditions since ceruloplasmin is an acute phase reactant.
This test is used to diagnose cobalt toxicity or to monitor cobalt therapy. The symptoms of acute exposure are nausea, vomiting, pulmonary fibrosis, allergy, hemorrhage, and cardiomyopathy. Chronic exposure is associated with allergic dermatitis, nausea, vomiting, pulmonary fibrosis, cough, dyspnea, and heart disease (including myocardial failure).
Also Known As: Co
Copper is an essential element that is a cofactor of many enzymes. Copper metabolism is distributed in Wilson's disease, Menkes disease, primary biliary cirrhosis, and Indian childhood cirrhosis. Copper concentrations increase in acute phase reactions. Copper concentrations are also useful to monitor patients, especially preterm newborns, on nutritional supplementation.
Also Known As: Cu
This test measures copper levels in a 24-hour urine sample. Copper is a mineral which plays a role in a number of bodily processes. Copper is found in a number of foods such as nuts, chocolate, shellfish, grains, and liver. Healthy copper levels contribute to energy production and nervous system function. Most copper in the body is bound to the enzyme Ceruloplasmin.
D-Dimer is one of the measurable by-products of activation of the fibrinolytic system. Quantitation of D-Dimer assesses fibrinolytic activation and intravascular thrombosis. D-Dimer is of particular value in excluding the diagnosis of venous thromboembolism among patients at high risk.
Elevated levels of EPO occur in patients with anemias due to increased red cell destruction in hemolytic anemia. It can be associated with impaired oxygen delivery to the tissues, impaired pulmonary oxygen exchange, abnormal hemoglobins with increased oxygen affinity, constriction of the renal vasculature, and inappropriate EPO secretion caused by certain renal and extrarenal tumors.
Also Known As: EPO
Folic acid deficiency is common in pregnant women, alcoholics, in patients whose diets do not include raw fruits and vegetables, and in people with structural damage to the small intestine. Low folic acid levels, however, can also be the result of a primary vitamin B12 deficiency that decreases the ability of cells to take up folic acid.
Also Known As: Folic Acid
This test measures glucose levels in the blood. Glucose is the main source of energy for the body's cells. It is produced from the food a person eats, primarily carbohydrates. Insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas, helps move glucose to the body's cells.